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Travel Amazon – Manu Biosphere 8 days

Altitude manu Park: It covers a latitudinal variety that ranges from 4,300 masl in the high Andean highlands to 200 masl in the Amazon plain. On average, the areas included in the visits are 183 m.a.s.l. An affirmed highway starts from Cusco and leads to the towns of Atalaya and Shintuya (at 9 and 12 hours respectively), points from where it is possible to start the journey by river (5 to 6 hours). There are also light aircraft flights linking Cusco and the town of Boca Manu (30 minutes), from which it is necessary to continue by river (4 to 6 hours). You have to hire the services of the agencies authorized for it. It is from the city of Lima, by air, or from the city of Puerto Maldonado, the Reserve can be reached by land or river.

Itinerary Tour

Travel Amazon – Manu Biosphere 8 days

  • Length: 8 Days  7 Nights
  • Type of service: Private and Group .
  • Location: Southern Peru, Madre de Dios Department, Manu Tour, Manu National Park, Tours,
  • Activities: Manu Tour, Flora & Fauna, Lake Salvador , Otorongo Lake , macaw  clay-lick, blanquillo ,puerto maldonado .
  • Altitude: 600 – 4,000 m.a.s.l.
  • Best time to visit: March – December
  • Departure: All Year
  • Minimum of participants: 2
  • Maximum of participants: 10
  • Price per person: USD


Travel Amazon – Manu Biosphere 8 days

Travel  Amazon Day 01 : Cusco Manu Cloud Forest  – Pilcopata Lodge .

We pick up from your hotel very early in the morning from 5:30 a.m. at 6:00 a.m. in our comfortable and private bus. On the way, we visit the funerary towers or Chullpas de Ninamarca at 3750 meters above sea level and a brief visit to Paucartambo, a folkloric town, a colonial bridge. We ascend to the upper area of Paucartambo, the Acjanaco sector. (4000 m.s.n.m) This is the point of entry to the Manu National Park. Then we descend through the mysterious cloud forest, which hosts a great variety of flora and fauna, full of beautiful orchids, heliconias and primitive ferns. We toke a walk to give you the opportunity to witness the Cock of the Rocks (Rupícola Peruviana) in the ritual of mating. There are also possibilities to observe Trogones (Trogon sp.), Quetzales (Pharomachrus sp.) In addition, much more and if we are lucky we can observe Spectacled Bear (Tremantus Ornatos). In the afternoon, we arrive at a village  Pilcopata at 550 meters above sea level in our typical lodge that is outside the town with private bathrooms and showers where we will spend the night.

Travel  Amazon Day 02 : Picopata Lodge  – Atalaya  Port  Hot Spring  to Boca Manu .

After the delicious breakfast we continue our trip 45 minutes by bus to watchtower port on the way we observe coca and fruit tree plantations, orchids, we embark on motorized boat by the Madre de  Dios river. On the way, we can see a variety of birds, such as herons, Kingfisher and always the presence of vultures of which the most spectacular is the condor of the jungle, the king of vultures (Sarcoramphus papa). The Jaguar (Panther Onca) we also have a stop in natural hot springs, to take medicinal baths, if we still have time we visit the Native community of Diamante to see their typical constructions of houses and see the wild fruits they have. In the afternoon we arrive at the village of Boca Manu (280 m.s.n.m), where we have the accommodation. lodge with showers and bathrooms.

Travel Amazon Day 03 : Boca Manu  – Cocha Otorongo Manu Biosphere .

After breakfast, we enter the reserve area where we will have a better opportunity to observe the biodiversity that the Manu offers, a brief stop in the  rangers  stations. The boat trip continues and one begins to realize why Manu is so famous for its wildlife. On the banks of the river, there are groups of turtles, white alligators (Cayman cocodrylus) or perhaps some ronsocos (Hydrochoerus, hydrochaeris) and many more. In the afternoon we arrived at our safari camp in Cocha Otorongo, (250 m.s.n.m) (double beds inside platforms) shortly after we organized a walk to visit the lake and the observation tower of 30 meters from where we have the opportunity to observe the river giant otters. Here in the Manu the animals have never suffered hunting persecution by men. Night in safari camp, on platforms with roof double beds with mosquito net. Showers and shared bathrooms.

Travel Amazon Day 04 : Cocha Otorongo  to Cocha Salvador – Manu Reserve Zone .

The group visits Cocha Salvador today, which is 30 minutes from Cocha Otorongo. Today, they explore walking in the virgin primary forest. We visit the lake to paddle silently in a catamaran that gives us the possibility to observe the wolves of the river again and a great variety of strange birds. The sultana cock (Porphyrula Martinica or the Garga Agami ( Agamia) and monkeys of different species are almost certainly observed 9 species of the 14 species.We later walked on the main trails with the guide to learn the operation and secrets of the tropical forest. Brief visit to Casa Matchiguenka to buy some crafts in the afternoon we return to our camp in Cocha Otorongo. Night in camp on platforms with roof. Beds with mosquito net Showers and shared bathrooms available. Optional night walk.

Travel Amazon Day 05 : Cocha Otorongo  – Boca Manu  to Blanquillo ( Macaw Clay Lick .

After a delicious breakfast we continue with our trip in the imposing MANU and Madre de Dios River, until we reach the LODGE that is very close to the impressive Collpa de Macaws, where we will have a walk to explore the various trails around the LODGE where we will spend the night, Night in lodge.

Travel  Amazon Day 06 : Blanquillo (Macaw Clay Lick Center) Cocha Blanco

After a delicious and nutritious breakfast, we will continue with our itinerary traveling by boat to observe the COLORFUL MACAWS. WE WILL OBSERVE FROM A PLATFORM or a catamaran typical of the area A SPECTACULAR SHOW OF BIRDS. Of great variety, monkeys, reptiles, dwarf alligators and insects, groups of turtles and perhaps some ronsocos (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) after this unforgettable walk, then we will visit white lake, from a catamaran we will be able to observe a few otters and turtles.

Travel Amazon Day 07 : Blanquillo  -Port Colorado to Puerto Maldonado .

After breakfast we will take the boat to Puerto Colorado approximately 3 hours and then we will take the vehicles to Puerto Carlo, OPTIONAL the passengers that wish to come by bus continue until Cusco arriving approximately 9 pm in the way we make stops in interesting places to see up close the snowy Ausangate that reaches 6300 masl and we leave at your hotel. In addition, the other passengers who wish to take the flight from Puerto Maldonado continue the trip to the city of Puerto Maldonado. Night in hotel.

Travel Amazon Day 08 : Puerto Maldonado Airport – Cusco  City .

Depending on the flight time. They usually arrive in Cusco at 1:00 p.m.

Includes/ not /Includes


Included in the Travel Amazon

  •    Private land transport.
  •    Private river transport.
  •    Specialized professional guide.
  •    With telescope and binoculars.
  •    Food, D.A.C. and snack.
  •    Security team
  •    Hosting in comfortable Lodge .
  •   private bathrooms.
  •    First aid kit
  •    Mineral water.
  •    Thick clothes (cold sunrise by the river)
  •    Rain gear
  •    Water bottle
  •    Binoculars
  •    Sunblock
  •    Flashlight or torch with extra batteries
  •    Hat or hat
  •    Shirt with long sleeves and long pants
  •    Mosquito repellent at least 10% deet
  •    Sandals, swimwear and towel
  •    Personal hygiene equipment (toilet paper)
  •    Professional crew and crew member
  •    Professional chef
  •    Revenue ticket to tourist attractions.
  •    Recharge of batteries to solar panel.
  •    A pair of hiking boots.

Does not include in the Travel Amazon:

  •   Breakfast on the first day
  •   Alcoholic beverages, soft
  • drinks and water the first day.
  •   Extra money.
  • Note: The passenger must carry a maximum of 10 kilos of luggage.

CONSERVATION RULES :Our passengers must comply with the following rules for the proper use, comfort and enjoyment of the trip to the Tourist and Recreational Use Zone of Manu.









Travel Amazon – Manu Biosphere 8 days
1. 44 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Black Howler Monkey Alouatta Palliata The Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta palliata) is a species of undisturbed Platyrian primate that is widely spread in Central and South America from southern Mexico to the extreme north of Peru. This species inhabits a diversity of environments that comprise secondary forests, semi-deciduous forests, humid forests, dry forests, mountain forests, mangroves and cloud forests. They are diurnal, arboreal and relatively sedentary animals with little social activity. They live in groups of around 20 individuals, but generally congregate in small groups. Males and females leave their natal groups upon reaching sexual maturity, the groups have a dominant male who claims the right to copulate with the females. They are territorial animals and are characterized by having a large hyoid, which enables it to emit very intense audible howls 8 km away. Mainly at sunrise and sunset to warn other groups of their presence. This will allow them to save the energy used during confrontations. Females usually have their first calf at two years of age, the gestation period lasts about 6 months and the interval between births is 2 years. Its diet is made up of equal proportions of tender leaves and fruits, and a smaller proportion of flowers, this varies according to the site, sex, time of year and food availability. Despite being threatened by deforestation due to the type of diet and the ability to live in confined spaces, it is highly adaptable and capable of living in fragmented and intervened forests. This species of howler monkey inhabits most of Central America and northwestern South America. It is found in southern Mexico, the center of
2. 45. 45 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, north and west of Colombia, west of Ecuador and the Tumbes Region in Peru. A. palliata is sympatric with another species of howler, the Guatemalan black howler (Alouatta pigra) in a restricted sector in Guatemala and Mexico near the Yucatan peninsula. Probably it is not adapted as its relative Alouatta seniculus to live in areas of intervened and divided forest, finding itself instead better adapted that is better adapted than A. seniculus to live in closed canopy forests, I feel the latter better adaptable to flood forests , gallery forests and stubble. In Colombia, near the Atrato river, it also converges with the A. seniculus species. In Colombia the species is found mainly from humid forests to semi-deciduous forests on mountainous slopes. In Central America, a wide variety of forests, mainly in low-altitude perennial forests, is also found in mangroves, dry deciduous forests and intervened forests. They preferably sit in the medium and high canopy; like A. seniculus, they often descend to the ground and can swim with some skill. In general, avoid floodplain forests and swamps with mangroves near the coasts. Alouatta palliata belongs to the Atelidae family among those of New World monkeys (platyrrines), the family that contains howler monkeys, spider monkeys, woolly monkeys and muriquís. The species is part of the Alouattinae subfamily whose only genus is Alouatta, which contains all the howler monkeys. Three subspecies are recognized: Alouatta palliata aequatorialis in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama and Peru, Alouatta palliata palliata in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, and Alouatta palliata mexicana in Mexico and Guatemala. Two other subspecies are considered by some authors, but are more frequently classified as subspecies of Alouatta coibensis (howler monkey from Coiba Island). However, studies of mitochondrial DNA show that its classification remains unfinished. Depending on the region where it lives, it is known as the Congo monkey, howler of the coast, 1 howler monkey, araguato, zambo monkey, black howler, black monkey, gopher monkey, along the Colombian Caribbean coast; black monkey in the Colombian Pacific coast area (sometimes also applies to Ateles belzebuth);

1. 46 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) chongo and chongón monkey, in the southern region of the Colombian Pacific coast, adjacent to Ecuador; güeviblanco (Chocó) .4 Some Colombian indigenous names: kotudú (Noahamá); cuara (Chokó); uu (Cuna); and Ecuadorians: Aullaj munu (quichua). In French hurleur manteau; in German Mantelbrüllaffe; and in English black howler, black howling monkey, mantled howler or Golden-mantled Howling Monkey. The morphology of this species is similar to the other species of the Alouatta genus except for the coloration, which is predominantly black with gold or yellowish lateral stripes, however, brown or dark gray animals are known. The head is large in relation to the body, the face is black and is devoid of hair. As in all members of the Atelidae family, the tail is prehensile, long and strong with a hairless pad near the tip. There is a marked sexual dimorphism, males are larger than females, weighing between 5.5 and 9.8 kg, while females weigh between 3.1 and 7.6 kg, and they also have hair around their faces. longer and more abundant. In mature males the scrotum is white. Body length ranges from 481 to 675 mm, averaging 561 mm for males and 520 mm for females. The tail measures between 545 and 655 mm with an average in males of 583 mm and 609 mm in females.4 Other measurements made in Colombia show a range of body weight between 6 and 8 kg with an average for both sexes of 6 , 6.4 The brain of this howler weighs only about 55 g, smaller than that of some smaller gulls such as the white-headed capuchin (Cebus capucinus) .4 The species is adapted for a mainly folivorous diet, which is why its molars they have high ridges on their molars, useful for this vegetarian diet. The diet is made up of leaves and fruits more or less in the same proportion, but they also eat flowers. According to a study, the diet is made up of 48.2% leaves, 42.1% fruits and 17.9% flowers. According to a study, the percentage of time spent according to the species is as follows: Ficus yaponensis (Moraceae) 20.95%, Ficus insípida (Moraceae) 14.89%, Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) 6.08%, Platypodium elegans (Leguminosae) 5.65%, Inga fagifolia (Leguminosae) 3.86%, Poulsenia armata (Moraceae) 3.63%, Spondias mombin (Anacardiaceae) 2.63%, Cecropia insignis
47. 47 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) (Moraceae) 2.24%, Hieronima laxiflora (Euphorbiaceae) 1.99%, Lacmellea panamensis (Apocynaceae) 0.67%. The percentage of time eating fruits according to the family is: Moraceae 47.79%, Leguminosae 9.5%, Anacardiaceae 2.62%, Euphorbiaceae 1.99% and Apocynaceae 1.67%. They prefer young leaves which provide it with more protein than mature leaves.4 In another study carried out in Mexico, 27 species were documented as a food source, with 89% of the time invested in 8 species, being the most frequent family Moraceae (58.4%), with the following in importance Ficus spp., Poulsenia armata, Brosimum alicastrum, Cecropia obtusifolia and Pseudomedia oxyphyllaria; the other families were Lauraceae (22.6%) and Leguminosae (4.9%). Another study documented a time spent of 19.5% feeding on mature leaves, 44.2% on young leaves, 18.2% on flowers, 12.5% on fruit and 5.7% on nectar. In the same study, 62 species from 27 families were established, the most important being Leguminosae, followed by Moraceae and Anacardiaceae. The most representative species were Andira inermis (15%), Pithecellobium saman (10.04%), Pithecellobium longifolium (7.92%), Anacardium excelsum 7.23%, Licania arborea (7.06%), Manilkara achras (6.19%) , Astronium graveolens (5.46%) and Pterocarpus hayseii (4.71%). In Costa Rica it was documented a time spent in eating leaves of 49%, 28% of fruits and 22.5% of flowers. In Colombia, in the Chocó rainforest, the species was found to feed on 51 plant species belonging to 22 families and 35 genera. The most frequent families were Moraceae and Mimosaceae, in which 76% of the time spent was used. Other families were Caesalpinaceae, Sapotaceae, Cecropiaceae, Myristicaceae and Annonaceae. The species consumed with the most 1. frequency were: Brosimum utile, Ficus tonduzii, Inga macradenia, Pseudolmedia laevigata and Lacmellea cf. floribunda. They are generally peaceful, but can become violent. Cases have been observed in which groups of unmarried males displace males in one group and kill juveniles in the group, which induces the rest in females. A. palliata congregates in groups of between 6 and 23 individuals, more numerous on average than in Alouatta seniculus. In locations such as Barro Colorado Island, groups with average sizes of 20.8 and 21.5 were found, some of the
2. 48. 48 | Highest Howler Monkey (Alouatta) recorded for this species. Usually in each group there are two or three adult males, which makes a difference with A. seniculus, whose groups usually have only one male per group. These groups have between 4 and 6 females, but can reach 7 to 10 females. Each group is deployed in territories of between 10 and 60 ha, but smaller territories of between 3 and 7 ha have been recorded in some Panamanian forests, possibly due to overpopulation caused by migration from adjacent cleared forests. The daily routes in search of food registered are on average 123 m (range between 11 and 503 m), 443 m (range between 104 and 792 m) and 596 m (range between 207 and 1261 m). In coastal forests of Panama overpopulated by individuals from logged forests, he found a density of 1050 individuals per km²; however, densities of between 16 and 90 individuals per km² are normally found on the island of Barro Colorado, Panama, 23 individuals per km² in Mexico and 90 individuals per km² in Costa Rica. In Colombia, between 0.7 and 1.5 groups were found per km. The most characteristic aspect of the species are the vocal displays, the howl being the most recognizable, one of the strongest of the primates of the New World. This sound is emitted primarily as a warning to males in other groups or when they hear thunder and airplanes, and is usually accompanied by grunts from the group’s females and young. In a study carried out in Barro Colorado on the use of time during the day, 65.54% invested in resting, 10.23% in moving and 16.24% in eating. Another study found that these howlers used 58.42% of the time to rest, 15.35% to eat, 14.68% to move and 11.54% in social activities. He moves in a quadruped posture 70% of the time; they rarely jump and frequently hang off the tail while feeding. Other research revealed a quadruped locomotion 47% of the time, discontinued 37% of the time, and mixed 10% of the time. The postures adopted by this species are: sitting 53%, standing 20%, lying down 12% and suspended from feet and tail 11% .8 They sleep on horizontal branches in medium-sized trees in the vicinity of the site to which they fed the day before. .
49. 49 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Males reach maturity at 42 months and females reach 36 months. The sexual cycle is 16.3 days. Pheromones may play an important role during the sexual cycle, since males sniff the genitals and taste the urine of the females. The dominant male of the group has the right to copulate with the females. The gestation extends for 186 days and the births occur throughout the year. Generally a single calf is born, which depends entirely on its mother. At birth the prehensile tail is not functional, making it useful up to 2 months. They hold onto the mother’s womb until 2 or 3 weeks when they manage to climb on her back; maternal care lasts up to 18 months. In this species the parental care is remarkable, however, the mothers can be rather passive, but they can wait and carry them when the young are not able to avoid the spaces between the trees, this can also be done by the other adult members of the group. This species of howler monkey on the IUCN Red List is considered Alouatta palliata a Species of Least Concern.1 Throughout its distribution the species is not under severe threat, however in some 1. localities populations face habitat loss and hunting. For example, in the Azuero peninsula there is an intense loss of its habitat and its fragmentation. In the department of Chocó in Colombia it is the object of extensive hunting by the Afro-Colombian and indigenous population; additionally, at least 90% of the forests on the Atlantic coast of the country have been cleared to clear farmland. However, Alouatta palliata is an adaptable species that can subsist in young forests older than 60 years, and can tolerate fragmentation and the edge effect, compared to other species, this is due to its lifestyle that demands low energy expenditure, the The small size of the territory it requires and its diverse diet.9 The importance of the species at an ecological level lies in its role as a seed disperser. Its natural enemies are the jaguar (Panthera onca), the cougar (Puma concolor), the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and the harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja).
2. 50. 50 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Suborder: Haplorrhini Infraorder: Simiiformes Parvorden: Platyrrhini Family: Atelidae Genus: Alouatta Species: A. palliata (Gray, 1849)
3. 51. 51 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Guatemalan Black Howler Monkey Alouatta Pigra The Guatemalan black howler monkey, black saraguato or Guatemalan saraguato (Alouatta pigra) is a species of prothyrian primate from Central America. It is found in Belize, Guatemala and Mexico, occupying the Yucatan peninsula and jungles of the states of Tabasco and Chiapas. It lives in perennial, semi-deciduous and lowland rain forests. It is also known as a “baboon” in Belize, although it is not closely related to baboons living in Africa. It is commonly seen at the Community Baboon Sanctuary and the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary in Belize, and also at the various archaeological sites found in its geographical distribution. The taxon was described by Barbara Lawrence in 1933,5 in a taxonomic review of the howlers of Central America and northern South America. Lawrence described it as two subspecies of Alouatta palliata: (A. palliata pigra in the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico and northern Guatemala and A. palliata luctuosa in Belize. In 1970, Smith elevated the two subspecies to the species rank, Alouatta pigra, considering the same taxon a pigra and mourning, a classification accepted by Groves in 2005. Alouatta pigra lives in Belize, northern Guatemala and southeastern Mexico, and is endemic to the Central American rain forest, which covers 40,000 km² in these 3 countries. It is the only species of howler that inhabits the Yucatan peninsula in the Mexican states of Campeche and Quintana Roo, as well as Tabasco and Chiapas.The black howler monkey of Guatemala is the largest species of howler monkey in Central America, and is one of the largest species of monkeys in the new world. Males have an average weight of 11.4 kg and females 6.4 kg.8
4. 52. 52 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Its body measures between 52 cm and 64 cm, excluding the tail. The tail measures between 59 and 69 cm. Adults of both sexes have long, black hair and a prehensile tail, while the young has brown fur.9 Males over 4 months old have a white scrotum. The Guatemalan black howler monkey has some adaptations in common with other species of howler monkeys, which allow it to follow a diet with a large component of leaves. Their molars have high shear ridges, which help eat the leaves. Males have an enlarged hyoid bone near the vocal cords, which serves to amplify howling. This allows you to locate other males without spending a lot of energy, which is important since the leaves are a food with a low nutritional value. Howling occurs mainly at sunrise and sunset. The Guatemalan black howler is a diurnal and arboreal species.3 It lives in groups that are generally made up of one or two adult males, with a ratio of 1.3 females for each male.8 9 Groups generally have between 2 and 10 members, including breeding, although groups with up to 16 members have been observed.3 8 The life area has an extension of between 3 and 25 hectares.9 The population density can exceed 250 monkeys per square kilometer in the Community Baboon Sanctuary in Belize. The diet of the Guatemalan Black Howler Monkey includes mainly leaves and fruit, although flowers also make up a smaller portion of their diet. Ramon can provide up to 86% of the monkey’s diet during certain seasons. The species is considered endangered on the IUCN Red List due to its estimated population decline of up to 60% in the next 30 years. Threats include habitat loss, hunting and catching as a pet. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Family: Atelidae Genus: Alouatta

1. | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Bolivian Red Howler Monkey Alouatta Sara Alouatta sara, commonly called Bolivian Red Howler Monkey or preserve is a species of primate mammal of the family Atelidae.2 endemic to Bolivia.3 Its distribution ranges from the south of the Department of Pando to the outskirts of the city of Santa cruz de la sierra. It lives especially in primary forests. He is seen in pairs and groups. They normally give birth to a single calf. These howler monkeys eat young leaves, buds, flowers, fruits, seeds, stems, stems, and branches. Leaves are the main source of protein and fruits for energy and protein. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Suborder: Haplorrhini Infraorder: Simiiformes Parvorden: Platyrrhini Family: Atelidae Genus: Alouatta Species: A. sara (Elliot, 1910)
2. 54. 54 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Red or Colorado Howler Monkey Alouatta Seniculus GENERAL DESCRIPTION Scientific name: Alouatta seniculus Local name: Preserve Common name: Howler monkey Conservation Status: IUCN LC / CITES Ap. II Description: Total body length: 100 cm; Weight: 5-7 kg. Distribution: From Colombia to Bolivia, in the low jungle and part of the high jungle. Habitat: It inhabits only the primary forests, both floodable and high altitude. Reproduction: Apparently seasonal. Period between deliveries: 15-18 months. Prolificity: 1 calf per calving. Eating habits: It is probably the only strict vegetarian primate and basically feeds on leaves, fruits, flowers, buds and buds. Throughout its distribution it is known as red monkey, cockatoo monkey; snorer in the interior of Colombia; araguato in Arauca, Casanare and the Eastern Plains; bonso, a pronghorn monkey in Tolima and the Llanos Orientales cotudo and cotumono in the Amazon; Guariba Vermelho in the surroundings of Leticia (of Brazilian origin); other names in Spanish are mono colorado, coto. In English it is called red howler or red howling monkey; in French hurleur roux, hurleur alouate, singe rouge, Brüllaffe in German; scimmi aurgenti in Italian; baboen in Suriname; Guariba Vermelha or Guariba Ruiva in Portuguese. The red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) is the primate with the widest distribution in Colombia, however it faces a progressive loss of habitat. The fragmentation of forests constitutes one of the main factors that affect their distribution, and together with the quality of habitat, it has effects on the density and social behavior of their populations. Red Howlers live in troops with an average size of 6 to 9 individuals; are matrilineal social groups with a dominant male, there may be others
3. 55. 55 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) subordinates and several adult females with their young. These stable groups are formed, at least in part, by the benefits of partnering with private partners (better access to food, sexual partners, and evasion of predators). Precisely because they live together, these partners are usually the greatest competitors for resources and affect reproductive success. Within societies, agonistic behavior is defined as that group of behaviors with which an animal can respond to conflict, and affiliative behavior as that which promotes the formation and maintenance of social relationships. The species on the IUCN Red List considers it a species of least concern, nor is it included in the CITES appendices. In Colombia it is considered LC (least concern) and hunting for meat consumption is rare in northern Colombia but occasional in the eastern plains.

1. 56 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Alouatta seniculus inhabits northwestern South America in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, northern Peru, and northwestern Brazil — in the state of Amazonas. In Colombia the species is common and is only absent in the Pacific Region, the Guajira desert, the department of Nariño and the mountainous regions devoid of forests; It has been reported up to 3,200 masl in the Colombian Andes. In Venezuela it is known in the Sierra de Mérida and around Lake Maracaibo. In Ecuador and Peru it is found in most of the Amazon basin up to the Brazilian east limited by the Negro river. The species mainly inhabits primary low-altitude forests, dry deciduous forests, cloud forests, gallery forests, mangroves, and varzea forests. It has been observed up to 3200 masl in Colombia; in Ecuador it is found in the tropical rain forest of the Amazon basin between 200 and 2000 meters above sea level, being more frequent at less than 700 meters above sea level. The species for its arboreal habits is sometimes attacked by harpy eagles. However, the predation rate in tree primates is considerably lower than in land primates. In addition to harpy eagles, it has been documented, based on circumstantial evidence, that a group of four adults and possibly a fifth member of Alouatta seniculus disappeared due to a juvenile jaguar, the body weight of a spider monkey adjusts with the range of prey of the jaguar. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Family: Atelidae Genus: Alouatta Species: A. seniculus (Linnaeus, 1766)
2. 57. 57 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Monkey Carayá Pitá Alouatta Guariba The Carayá-pitá is an endangered monkey that inhabits northern Argentina and southern Brazil, more specifically in the so-called missionary jungle and in the departments of Montecarlo, Cainguás, Guaraní and San Peter. Its scientific classification is Alouatta guariba and it is known in the region mentioned as Red Howler Monkey. Other names by which the Carayá-pitá is identified are Reddish Carayá, and Red Howler Monkey. It is recognized precisely by the reddish-brown or orange coloration of an abundant and smooth coat approximately 5 centimeters long. His expression is more than friendly thanks to light brown eyes that stand out on a totally black face. The proportions of its body reach 60 cm., To which are added as many by the length of the tail. Its complexion is robust, especially in the neck and dewlap, where the monkey keeps a powerful speaking apparatus that allows it
3. 58. 58 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) release its characteristic howls, which curl the nerves of the entire jungle. Although the howling is frequent in most monkey species, the sound characteristic of the Carayá-pitá is given by its hyoid bone, which is much larger than in the others, allowing it a higher sound quality. This mammal lives in humid areas with thick vegetation and spends most of its time on trees. However, his physical strength and developed intelligence allow him to perform in all kinds of terrain, including water, being a great swimmer in case the need arises. The diet of this animal, whose weight ranges between 4 and 10 kilos, is eminently herbivorous. Their diet consists of fruits and seeds, leaves and flowers, tender stems and buds. The Carayá-pitá regulates the necessary amounts and proportions of proteins, fiber and carbohydrates, obtained from these natural products. As for his social life, he is gregarious, forming numerous herds of up to 20 individuals with whom he exercises a sedentary life and away from major complications. There are no physiognomic differences between male and female, except for size, with the male being slightly more voluminous. The howler monkey gestation lasts 188 days, with the births of one calf at a time. Their average life span reaches 25 years, although many times they suffer a premature death due to human negligence. Its causes of death are associated with indiscriminate deforestation and hunting.
59 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Carayá Pitá Monkey Alouatta Guariba Alouatta mauroi is an extinct species of prothyrian primate that inhabited Brazil during the late Pleistocene. The specimen, consisting of several cranial fragments, was found in 1984 in the state of Bahia, Brazil, and deposited in the Museum of Natural Sciences, of the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte. It was formally described in 2008 after comparing it with the different Alouatta species. The existence of the species in the state of Bahia during the Pleistocene, makes it probable that it has coexisted with large species of shorebirds such as Protopithecus and Caipora, whose size exceeded by 20% that of modern shorebirds. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Family: Atelidae Subfamily: Atelinae Genus: Alouatta Species: A. mauroi † Tejedor et al., 2008
58. 60. 60 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Danger of extinction The Mono Carayá is in danger of extinction, since there are no more than 400 specimens in Misiones, the only place of residence of these primates. The primatologists of the NGO Animals of the Earth, Doctors Ilaria Agostini, Ingrid Holzman and Luciana Oklander, were recently organizing part of the “First Workshop in favor of the Conservation of the Red-headed Monkey in danger of extinction”. Specialists have been studying the Monkeys Carayá for three years and stated that the primates they had been studying had died, presumably attacked by a yellow fever epidemic. The situation was reported to authorities of the Ministry of Ecology of Misiones, who immediately intervened and took samples of some of the dead monkeys, and the result was catastrophic, a yellow fever epidemic was the cause of death of a large part of the colony of Red carayás. At the meeting, the causes of the rapid extinction of the species and the need to adopt a series of measures to guarantee the increase in the colonies of the Red Carayá Monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans), in their natural habitat in our province, were determined. The workshop was organized by the Institute for Subtropical Biology (IBS) under the UNaM and CONICET, the Asociación Civil Centro de Investigaciones del Bosque Atlántico (CeIBA) and the Species Conservation Specialists Group of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN SSC-CBSG) Biologists, veterinarians, epidemiologists and specialists in population viability analysis provided twelve experts who developed a model that describes the complex relationships between the vectors of the yellow fever virus (mosquitoes), their reservoirs natural (mammals), humans and Monkeys Carayá.